BismiLLehi Er-Rahmâni Er-Rahîm

Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahouALLÂH) a dit : « La règle dans l’adoration, est que rien n’est prescrit si ce n’est ce qu’Allâh a prescrit. Et la règle dans les coutumes (ou affaires sociales), est que rien n’est interdit, en dehors de ce qu’Allâh a interdit. »

Cette parole constitue deux fondements opposés. Le premier est qu’il est interdit de faire quoique ce soit dans l’adoration, si ce n’est en présence d’une preuve le permettant. Le deuxième fondement, est que tout est permis si ce n’est en présence d’une preuve qui vient interdire. C’est-à-dire, que c’est la permission à la base jusqu’à l’élévation d’une preuve (interdisant la chose). [1]

L’étude exhaustive des fondements de la Législation nous permet de savoir que les actes d’adorations prescrites ou recommandées par Allâh ne peuvent être exigées que par la Législation. Quant aux affaires sociales (ou coutumes), elles sont celles qui répondent aux besoins courants des gens. En principe, ces pratiques sont permises. On n’en interdit aucune qui ne soit pas interdite par Allâh ﷻ. C’est parce que le commandement et l’interdiction émanent de la Législation d’Allâh. L’adoration doit être l’objet d’un ordre. Comment qualifier d’adoration quelque chose qui ne fait pas l’objet d’un tel ordre. De même, si rien ne prouve l’interdiction d’une coutume ou pratique habituelle, comment la juger interdite. Voilà pourquoi Ahmad et d’autres parmi les jurisconsultes et Gens du hadîth disaient qu’en principe les adorations sont fixes. Rien n’est prescrit si ce n’est ce qu’Allâh a prescrit. Autrement, nous rentrons dans le sens de la Parole : « Ou bien auraient-ils des associés [à Allâh] qui auraient établi pour eux des lois religieuses qu’Allâh n’a jamais permises ? » [2].

Les pratiques habituelles ou coutumes sont en principe pardonnées. Rien n’est interdit si ce n’est ce qu’Allâh a interdit. Autrement, nous rentrons dans le sens de la Parole : « Que dites-vous de ce qu’Allâh a fait descendre pour vous comme subsistance et dont vous avez alors fait des choses licites et des choses interdites ? » [3]. C’est pourquoi Allâh a condamné les polythéistes qui ont adopté des adorations non autorisées par Allâh et interdit ce qu’il n’a pas interdit. [4]

[1] Charh Iqtidhâ Es-Sirât il-Moustaqîm li-moukhâlifati Eshâb El-Djahîm de Ibn Taymiyyah par SHeikh Ibn ‘Uthaymîn, p.439
[2] Coran, 42/21
[3] Coran,10/59
[4] Madjmou’ El-Fatâwa de Ibn Taymiyyah, 29/16-17
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