BismiLLehi Er-Rahmâni Er-Rahîm

Abî ‘El-‘Awâm a dit : ‘Omar Ibn El-Khattâb a écrit à Moûssâ El-Ach’arî en ses termes : Après cela, rendre la justice est une obligation indiscutable et une tradition qu’il convient de suivre. Sois attentif aux cas qui te sont soumis, car il est inutile de proclamer la vérité sans l’appliquer. Montre-toi juste envers tous afin que le noble ne puisse espérer ta partialité, ni le faible désespérer de ta justice. C’est au plaignant de fournir la preuve ; le défenseur doit, pour sa part, prêter serment. Le compromis entre musulmans est permis, sauf lorsqu’il transforme ce qui est illicite en licite et inversement. Si tu rends un jugement puis reviens sur ta décision après réflexion, ta première sentence ne doit pas t’empêcher de te rétracter : il est préférable de revenir à la vérité que persévérer dans l’erreur.

Étudie longuement les questions qui te troublent et auxquelles ni le Coran ni la Sounnah (tradition prophétique) n’apportent de réponse. Réfère-toi aux cas similaires, raisonne par analogie (Qiyâs) et choisis la solution qui serait la plus susceptible de plaire à Allâh, et la plus proche de la vérité. Accorde au plaignant un délai pour fournir la preuve dont il a besoin. S’il l’apporte, rends-lui sont droit ; sinon, rends la justice selon la législation. Tout musulman peut témoigner à l’exception de celui qui a été condamné à une peine, celui dont un précédent témoignage s’était révélé faux et celui qui est susceptible d’être partial en raison d’un lien de parenté : Allâh Seul connaît les secrets enfouis dans les cœurs et vous livre des preuves pour vous épauler dans votre tâche. Ne te montre pas ambigu, mécontent et impatient lors des audiences car les jugements portés dans les lieux avec une intention pure, Allâh leur suffira à établir la vérité, tandis que ceux qui se forgeront une image auprès des autres se verront déshonorer par Allâh. Certes Allâh le Très Haut n’accepte rien de Ses serviteurs si ce n’est de ceux qui sont sincère. Souhaites-tu donc obtenir la récompense et la miséricorde d’Allâh ? Que la paix et la miséricorde d’Allâh soit sur toi. [1]

[1] I’lâm al-Mouwaqi’în ‘an Rabb il-‘Âlamîn de Ibn El-Qayyîm, 1/158-159

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